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Ορίστε τι λέγανε ας πούμε εκεί μέσα για το schism
[SPOILER]IINTRODUCTION Schism, Great, in the history of the Christian church, term used to refer to both the break between the Eastern and Western churches, traditionally dated 1054, and the period (1378-1417) in the Western church when two (and then three) popes simultaneously claimed to be legitimate. The term schism means any formal and willful separation from the unity of the Christian church; unlike heresy, with which it is often linked, it does not of itself denote doctrinal deviations.
IISCHISM OF EASTERN AND WESTERN CHURCHES The alienation between the Eastern and Western churches had deep cultural and political roots and evolved over the course of many centuries. As Western culture was gradually transformed, for instance, by the influx of Germanic peoples, the East sustained an unbroken tradition of Hellenistic Christianity. Although respectful of the prerogatives of Rome as the original capital of the empire, the church at Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) resented some of the jurisdictional claims made by the popes, claims vigorously renewed and amplified during the pontificate of Leo IX (reigned 1048-54) and his successors. The West, in turn, opposed the Caesaropapism (subordination of the church to a secular ruler) that characterized the church at Constantinople. See Church and State.
In 1043 Michael Cerularius became patriarch in Constantinople. In reaction to the pope's intervention in the affairs of Byzantine churches in southern Italy, Cerularius began a campaign against Latin churches in his own city and eventually closed them. His attacks were directed against such matters as the Latins' use of unleavened bread. Only later did he discover the discrepancy in belief between the two churches on the procession of the Holy Spirit, a divisive issue that was destined to assume ever greater importance in subsequent centuries. See Filioque.
Humbert of Silva Cardinal Candida, sent to Constantinople from Rome in 1054 to deal with the problem, matched Cerularius in narrow-minded zeal and concluded his visit by excommunicating the patriarch and his colleagues, an act later interpreted as an excommunication of the entire Greek church. After a few days, the patriarch and his synod responded in kind. Later events, such as the tragic sacking of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade (see Crusades) confirmed the rift, and efforts to heal it have never been successful. On December 7, 1965, however, the mutual excommunications were cancelled by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I as part of a larger effort to draw the two churches together.
IIISCHISM OF RIVAL POPES The Great Schism in the Western church began with the contested election of Pope Urban VI in 1378. The cardinals who elected him, dismayed at his erratic behavior, withdrew their obedience, declared Urban's election invalid because it was made under the duress of rioting in Rome, and selected a new pope, Clement VII. Urban retaliated by excommunicating Clement and his followers and by creating a college of cardinals of his own.
Historians today find it impossible to adjudicate between the claims for validity of these two elections. In any case, when Clement moved to Avignon and won the adherence of the French king, the schism began in earnest. Allegiance to either pope was determined by the political preferences of the rulers concerned.
During the half-century the schism lasted, a number of solutions were proposed, including the popes' resignations, but only the convocation of a council offered any real hope. Cardinals and bishops from both sides met at Pisa in 1409, but their efforts only resulted in adding a third pope to the other two. The Council of Constance (1414-18) finally effected the resignation or deposition of the contending popes and the election of Martin V (reigned 1417-31) with universal recognition. The scandal of the schism gave temporary impetus to a conciliar theory of church government and also intensified the call for reform that eventually erupted in the Protestant Reformation.[/SPOILER]